Creature Production



Obective: Student should be able explain the structutre and function from the digestive system of the bird


Fowls have zero teeth; they use their beak to take in their particular food. The meals passes down through the oesophagus, towards the crop wherever it is placed and moistens. The food then simply goes to the Proventriculus: The proventriculus secretes digestive state of mind which help in order to down food. The Gizzard: The gizzard consists of highly effective muscles, which grinds and digest meals The food then simply goes into the deodenum and then into the small intestine exactly where digestion is completed The Caeca: absorb water from the faeces

The Cloaca: This is where squander and urine exit.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF RUMINANTS Objective: College students should be light beer to explain the stucture and functions in the digestive devices of a ruminant.

The ruminant stomach consists of FOUR compartments:

1 . Rumen

2 . Reticulum

3. Omasum

4. Abomasum

The Rumen: The rumen is the largest compartment, wherever food can be stored. Usually the rumen is constantly contracting and shifting. A healthy creature will have at least two contration per minute. The contraction helps: In the mixing of rumen content

To bring microorganisms in contact with the feedstuff

To move materials out of the rumen

Some cellulose digestion likewise takes place in the rumen, because of the presense of cellulose processing bacteria. In the rumen the food is then regurgitated into the mouth to be chewed effectively. The Reticulum: the reticulum is located best to the mind of the dog; it is also referred to as the honeycomb bag. Inside the reticulum greater pieces of meals are segregated and regurgitated. NOTE: Any foreign things such as line or fingernails or toenails that may be

Swallowed tend to lodge in the reticulum and are in a really

Good position to permeate the center. This is a common

Feature of what is known as " Components Disease”.

The Omasum: the omasumhas thin muscle wall which will grinds the food before it enters the abomasum. The Abomasum (or the True Stomach): where substance digestion a lot like nonruminants occurs. PN: in young ruminat the digestive system is not really well developed, since the animal will probably be fed chiefly on dairy, therefore the dairy goes straight from the oesophagus to the abomasum via a oeasophageal groove.

Gastrointestinal tract of a Rabbit (Pseudoruminant)

Rabbits eat plant material that passes through the stomach untill it gets to the caecum where the cellulose is broken down by bacteria. The material is usually partially broken down and moves to the colon where it can be formed in to pellets. Besides the normal faeces, they produce special poop called Cecotropes. Softer and smaller than the totally normal pellets, they are excreated in clusters are swalloewd the moment they are removed (particularly during the night). Cecotropes are abundant in bacterial proteins, and this a double


The yolk provides aminoacids and fats (fats) towards the developing embryo. The bonnyclabber provides aminoacids and normal water to the embryo and shields yolk by invasion by microorganisms..

The chalaza is a twisted follicle of dense albumen, hold yolk in place inside the egg –permit limited rotation

–inhibit lateral displacement

The embryonic disc or perhaps germ layer is the part of the egg which will develop into the chick. The shell and egg membrane protects the inner portion of the egg are permeable to air Mid-air space give the embryo with oxygen

The yolk longchamp shrinks as the embryo uses up their food store and it is absorbed in to the body in hatching.

Animal Nourishment Feed and feed bout costitutents and sources.

Farm animals need food for:

- Energy

- Progress

- Repair

- Rgulation of body features

- Creation e. g. milk development

Food is done...



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